Irnerius
Irnerius
An Italian jurist and founder of the School of Glossators, b. at Bologna about 1050; d. there about 1130

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

Irnerius
    Irnerius
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Irnerius
    (GARNERIUS)
    An Italian jurist and founder of the School of Glossators, b. at Bologna about 1050; d. there about 1130. Though he was one of the most famous jurists of the Middle Ages, very little is known concerning his life and works, and it is only during the last twenty years that he has received the attention which his influence on the history and development of medieval jurisprudence demands. He was probably little over twenty years of age when he already taught didactics and rhetoric at Bologna. At the instance of Countess Matilda of Tuscany he began to devote himself to the study of jurisprudence, taking the Justinian code as a guide. Up to his time the study of jurisprudence had been much neglected in the empire, and he had to depend to a great extent on private studies, though it is probable that for a time he frequented a law school in Rome. After teaching jurisprudence for a short while in Rome he returned to Bologna, where he founded a new school of jurisprudence in 1084. It appears that some jurisprudence had been taught at Bologna, before Irnerius founded his school, by a certain Pepo and a few others; but the great impulse which juridical studies received at Bologna at this time, and from there began to spread throughout Europe, was entirely due to the school of Irnerius. He introduced the custom of explaining the Roman law by means of glosses, which originally were meagre interlinear elucidations of the text. But since the glosses were often too extensive to be inserted between the lines of the text, he began to write them on the margin of the page, thus being the first to introduce the marginal glosses which afterwards came into general use. After the death of Pope Paschal II, he defended the rights of Emperor Henry V in the papal election and upheld the legality of the election of the imperial antipope, Gregory VIII.
    Irnerius is the author of numerous juridical works, but most of them have either been lost, or their genuineness is not sufficiently established. His chief work is "Summa Codicis", which is of a special historical value, because it is the first medieval system of Roman jurisprudence. It was recently edited with a critical introduction by Fitting, "Summa Codicis des Irnerius, mit einer Einleitung" (Berlin, 1894). Another important work generally ascribed to Irnerius is "Quaestiones de juris subtilitatibus". It was also edited by Fitting, "Quaestiones de juris subtilitatibus des Irnerius, mit einer Einleitung" (Festschrift zum 200jährigern Jubiläum der Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, 1894). The other juridical works and glosses that are ascribed to Irnerius are extant only in fragments, or their authorship is still too uncertain.
    BESTA, L'opera d'Irnerio, contributo alla storia del diritto Romano (2 vols., Turin, 1896); FITTING, Die Anfanfge der Rechtsschule zu Bologna (Berlin, 1888); SAVIGNY, Geschichte des römischen Rechtes in Mittelatter, IV (Heidelberg, 1834-51), 9—67, 447-70; SCHUPPER, La scuola di Roma e la questione Irneriana in Atti accadem, Lincei (Rome, 1898), 3-168; PESCATORE, Die Glossen des Irnerius (Greifwald, 1890); PATETTA, La Summa Codicis e le Questiones falsamente attribuite ad Irnerio (Turin, 1897), Die Summa Codicis und die Questiones des falamente attribuite ad Irnerio (Turin, 1897); Die Summa Codicis und die Quaestiones des Irnerius in Zeitschrtft fur Rechtsgeschichte, XVII (Rome, 1896), 1- 96; Irnerio secondo la nuova critica storica in Rivista Storica Italiana, XI (Turin, 1894), 607-628.
    MICHAEL OTT
    Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


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  • Irnerius — von Bologna (* um 1050; † um 1130) war Begründer der berühmten Glossatorenschule in Bologna, die einen wesentlichen Teil zur Bewahrung römischer Rechtstexte und insbesondere zur wissenschaftlichen Bearbeitung des römischen Rechts beitrug.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Irnerius — (c. 1050 ndash; after 1125), sometimes referred to as lucerna juris ( lantern of the law ), was an Italian jurist, and founder of the School of Glossators.He taught the newly recovered Roman lawcode of Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis ,… …   Wikipedia

  • IRNERIUS — (1050 env. env. 1130) Juriste bolonais du début du XIIe siècle, Irnerius est également connu sous les noms de Guarnerius et de Wernerius. On sait peu de chose de sa vie. Son nom figure dans des documents qui s’échelonnent entre 1112 et 1125. Il… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Irnerius — (Bologne v. 1050 Bologne, av. 1130) fut un jurisconsulte et un universitaire italien de la fin du XIe et du début du XIIe siècle. Biographie Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la bienvenue !… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Irnerĭus — Irnerĭus, ein Deutscher, lehrte zu Ravenna u. Bologna die freien Künste, seit 1128 das Römische Recht in Bologna. Er war der erste Glossator u. hatte deshalb den Beinamen Lucerna juris. Bei der Gräfin Mathilde stand er in großem Ansehen u. war… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Irnerĭus — (auch Yrnerius, Hirnerius, Hyrnerius, Warnerius, Wernerius, Guarnerius, Gernerius), ein ausgezeichneter Jurist des 11. und 12. Jahrh., ward in Bologna nach 1050 geboren und ist daselbst wohl spätestens 1130 gestorben. I. war schon in jungen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Irnerius — Irnerius,   Rechtsgeschichte: Glosse …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Irnerius — ▪ Italian legal scholar also spelled  Guarnerius  or  Warnerius  born c. 1050, Bologna [Italy] died in or after 1125, Bologna       one of the scholars who revived Roman legal studies in Italy and the first of a long series of noted legal… …   Universalium

  • Irnerius von Bologna — (* um 1050; † um 1130) war Begründer der berühmten Glossatorenschule in Bologna, die einen wesentlichen Teil zur Bewahrung römischer Rechtstexte und insbesondere zur wissenschaftlichen Bearbeitung des römischen Rechts beitrug. Inhaltsverzeichnis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • IRNERIUS Germ — primus Bononiae ius docuit, post Iustiniani tempora, Glossasqueve in illud scripsit. Auctor Lothario. ut libros Iur. Civ. publice exponi curaret, quod factum, A. C. 1150. Obiit bononiae A. C. 1190. Al. Wernerus …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

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