Julius III


Julius III
Julius III
    Pope Julius III
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Pope Julius III
    (GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE).
    Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. He was the son of a famous Roman jurist, studied jurisprudence at Perugia and Siena, and theology under the Dominican, Ambrosius Catharinus. In 1512 he succeeded his uncle Antonio del Monte as Archbishop of Siponto (Manfredonia), and in 1520 as Bishop of Pavia, retaining, however, the administration of Siponto. Later he became vice-legate of Perugia, and under Clement VII was twice appointed prefect of Rome. After the Sack of Rome (1527) he was one of the hostages given by Clement VII to the Imperialists, and would have been killed by the imperial Landsknechte in the Campo di Fiori, had he not been secretly liberated by Cardinal Pompio Colonna. In 1534 he became legate of Bologna, the Romagna, Parma, and Piacenza. Pope Paul III created him Cardinal-Priest of SS. Vitalis, Gervasius, and Protasius on 22 December, 1536, and raised him to the dignity of cardinal-bishop with the Diocese of Palestrina on 5 October, 1543. As early as 1542 he had been entrusted with work preparatory to the convocation of the Council of Trent, and in a consistory held on 6 February, 1545, he was appointed first president of the council. In this capacity he opened the council at Trent on 13 December with a short oration (cf. Ehses, "Concilium Tridentinum", IV, Freiburg im Br., 1904, p. 516). At the council he represented the papal interests against Emperor Charles V, with whom he came in conflict on various occasions, especially when on 26 March, 1547, he transferred the Council to Bologna.
    After the death of Paul III on 10 November, 1549, the forty-eight Cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave ( see Conclave ) on 29 November. They were divided into three factions: the Imperials, the French, and the adherents of Farnese. The friends of Farnese united with the Imperial party and proposed Reginald Pole and Juan de Toledo as their candidates. The French party rejected both and, though in the minority, they were strong enough to prevent the election of either candidate. The adherents of Farnese and the French party finally reached a compromise and agreed upon Cardinal del Monte, who was duly elected on 7 February, 1550, after a conclave ( see Conclave ) of ten weeks, although the emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of candidates. The new pope took the name of Julius III. In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave ( see Conclave ), Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. But, when Farnese applied to France for aid against the emperor, Julius allied himself with the emperor, declared Farnese deprived of his fief, and sent troops under the command of his nephew Giambattista del Monte to co-operate with Duke Gonzaga of Milan in the capture of Parma. In a Bull, dated 13 November, 1550, Julius transferred the council from Bologna back to Trent, and ordered that its sessions be resumed on 1 May, 1551, but he was compelled to suspend it again on 15 April, 1552, because the French bishops would take no part in it, and, to escape his enemies, the emperor had to flee from Innsbruck. The success of the French arms in Northern Italy also compelled Julius on 29 April, 1552, to make a truce with France, in which it was stipulated that Farnese was to remain in the peaceful possession of Parma for two years.
    Discouraged at his failure as an ally of Charles V, the pope henceforth abstained from interfering in the political affairs of Italy. He withdrew to his luxurious palace, the Villa Giulia, which he had erected at the Porta del Popolo. Here he spent most of his time in ease and comfort, occasionally making a weak effort at reform in the Church by instituting a few committees of Cardinals for reformatory purposes. He was a liberal supporter of the rising Jesuit Order, and at the instance of St. Ignatius issued the Bull of foundation for the Collegium Germanicum on 31 August, 1552, and granted it an annual subsidy. During his pontificate the Catholic religion was temporarily restored in England by Queen Mary, who succeeded Edward VI on the English throne in 1553. Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate to England with extensive faculties to be used at his discretion in the interests of the Catholic restoration. In February, 1555, an embassy was sent by the English Parliament to Julius III to inform him of its unreserved submission to the papal supremacy, but the embassy was still on its journey when the pope died. Shortly before his death Julius III sent Cardinal Morone to represent the Catholic interest at the Religious Peace of Augsburg. At the beginning of his pontificate Julius III had the earnest desire to bring about a reform in the Church and with this intent he reopened the Council of Trent. That the council was again suspended was due to the force of circumstances. His inactivity during the last three years of his pontificate may have been caused by the frequent and severe attacks of the gout to which he was subject. The great blemish in his pontificate was nepotism. Shortly after his accession he bestowed the purple on his unworthy favourite Innocenzo del Monte, a youth of seventeen whom he had picked up on the streets of Parma some years previously, and who had been adopted by the pope's brother, Balduino. This act gave rise to some very disagreeable rumours concerning the pope's relation to Innocenzo. Julius was also extremely lavish in bestowing ecclesiastical dignities and benefices upon his relatives.
    MASSARELLI, De Pontificatu Julii II diarium, edited by DÖLLINGER in Ungedruckte Berichte und Tagebücher zur Gesch. des Konzils von Trient, I, i (Nördlingen, 1876), 259-326; PASTOR, Gesch. der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, V (Freiburg, 1909), passim; DE LAVA, La Guerra di Papa Giulio III contra Ottavio Farnese in Rivista storica Italiana (Turin, 1884), 632 sq.; IDEM, L'elezione de Papa Giulio III, ibid., 32 sq.; CIACONIUS, Vit&\#339; et res gest&\#339; Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, III (Rome, 1677), 741-98; CARDELLA, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della s. romana chiesa, IV (Rome, 1792), 397-401; RANKE, Die römischen Päpste (Leipzig, 1889), 177 sq., tr. FOSTER, History of the Popes, I (London, 1906), 206-11. See also bibliography under COUNCIL OF TRENT.
    MICHAEL OTT
    Transcribed by Vivek Gilbert John Fernandez Dedicated to my Godparents, Malcolm and Joyce Lobo and their children, Kavita and Ashwin.

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


Catholic encyclopedia.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Julius III. — Julius III. – Porträt von Scipione Pulzone Wappen von Papst Julius III., moderne Nac …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • JULIUS III° — (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte; b. 1487). pope, 1550–55. Julius III showed himself comparatively favorably disposed toward the Jews by employing many Jewish physicians, by imposing a fine of 1,000 ducats on anyone who forcibly baptized Jewish… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JULIUS III — dictus Ioh. Maria de Monte, Paulnm III. excepit, A. C. 1550. curatorem simiae suae purpurâ donavit, et ob id reprehensus a Cardinalibus, quod indignum homivem eveheret, Et vos quid, inquit, in me meritorum comperistis, quem Christianae Reip.… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Julius III — (Giammaria Ciocchi del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte) 1487 1555, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1550 55. * * * ▪ pope original name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi Del Monte born Sept. 10, 1487, Rome died March 23, 1555, Rome  pope from 1550 to 1555.… …   Universalium

  • Julius III — (Giammaria Ciocchi del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte) 1487 1555, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1550 55 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Julius III, Pope — • Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Papst Julius III. — Julius III. Portrait von Scipione Pulzone Julius III. (* 10. September 1487 in Rom; † 23. März 1555), eigentlicher Name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, war vom 7. Februar 1550 bis 23. März 1555 Papst der katholischen Kirche …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pope Julius III — Infobox pope|English name=Julius III|Latin name=Julius PP. III birth name=Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte term start=February 7, 1550|term end=March 23, 1555 predecessor=Paul III|successor=Marcellus II birth date=birth… …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Kardinalskreierungen Julius’ III. — Papst Julius III. kreierte im Verlauf seines Pontifikates folgende Kardinäle: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 30. Mai 1550 2 12. Oktober 1551 3 20. November 1551 4 22. Dezember 1553 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Julius — ist ein männlicher Vorname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung des Namens 2 Namenstag 3 Varianten 4 Bekannte Namensträger …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.