Jean-Antoine Houdon


Jean-Antoine Houdon
Jean-Antoine Houdon
    Jean-Antoine Houdon
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Jean-Antoine Houdon
    Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France during the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was trained under Slodtz and Pigalle and won the coveted Prix de Rome before he was twenty. In Italy he found a second Renaissance, due to the rediscovery of antiques and to the influence of Winckelmann. One of Houdon's first efforts, a work he never surpassed, was the heroic statue of St. Bruno for the church of Sta Maria degli Angeli. Its austere simplicity and strength drew from Clement XIV the famous words, "He would even speak, did not the Rule of his Order compel silence". On his return to Paris, Houdon sent his "Morpheus" to the Salon of 1771 and, owing to it, was made an associate of the Academy, becoming a full member in 1775. He also began that striking series of busts that brought the entire age before his modelling stool–Prince Gallitzin, Prince Henry of Prussia, the Dukes of Saxe-Gotha, Catherine II of Russia, the actress Sophie Arnould as Iphigenia, and that wonderful terra-cotta of Gluck, the composer, in the Royal Museum, Berlin. Appointed teacher at the Academy, Houdon presented to it, for the use of the students, his well-known "Ecorché", the human figure stripped of its skin to show the muscles and tendons uncovered; this is still used in most art schools. Diderot, D'Alembert, Gerbier, Turgot, Buffon, Palissot, Mirabeau, Barnave sat in turn for their portraits. Hearing of the death of Rousseau (1778), the sculptor hastened to Ermenonville to take a mask of the face; from this he modelled the remarkable head in the Louvre. In 1780 he made the portrait of Lafayette which is now in the State House, Richmond, Virginia, and in 1781 the draped statue of Voltaire at the Théâtre Français, with its antique air and curiously modern visage. The Maréchal de Tourville is of about the same period. The noted bronze "Diana" of the Louvre dates from 1783; the marble original, "twin sister of the Apollo Belvedere", was refused at the Salon on account of its scanty raiment (Hermitage, St. Petersburg). On 22 July, 1785, Houdon sailed for America with Franklin, whose bust he had previously made. He was received at Philadelphia and spent two weeks at Mount Vernon making studies of Washington, which he took back at once to Paris, and from which he produced the bust now in the collection of Mr. Hamilton Fish, New York, and the statue for the State House, Richmond, Virginia. It was proposed to put Washington in classic garb, but he chose to be in uniform. The same year, 1785, Houdon modelled the "Frileuse" (Musée of Montpellier), a female figure shivering with cold, as a companion piece for his "Summer". Among his most charming works are the Boignart children (Louvre) and his daughter Sabine in adolescence–delicate heads, instinct with life, and so fresh they might have emerged yesterday from the clay. In the private park at Bagatelle is an admirable "Baigneuse" in stone, set in a grotto, one foot touching the water. The bust of "Minerva", in the hall of the Institut de France, is also Houdon's. The "Apollo", 1790, is a companion to the "Diana" replica of that year. The Revolution brought an end to all work and commissions. To pass the time, Houdon was retouching an old "St. Scholastica"; this caused him to be denounced to the Convention, and he only saved his life by changing the saint into a figure of "Philosophy". In the early days he had made portraits of Du Barry, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, the Princesses Adelaide and Elisabeth, and the Court, not to mention the Encyclopedists and the noted men of the Revolution. He lived to add Napoleon and the Empress Josephine to the collection. In the end his mind clouded, and he slept away the last measure of his life. Possessed of great simplicity and openness of mind, and of a happy spirit, Houdon had been much sought after for the charm of his conversation, and his recollections of illustrious personages. In technic he is direct and simple; his paramount qualities are lifelikeness and spontaneity.
    DILKE, Franch Architects and Sculptors of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1900); SHEDD, Famous Sculptors and Sculptures (Boston, 1881); LUBKE, History of Sculpture, tr. BUNNETT (London, 1872).
    M. L. HANDLEY
    Transcribed by WGKofron With thanks to Fr. John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


Catholic encyclopedia.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jean-antoine houdon — Jean Houdon, statue à Versailles Jean Antoine Houdon (20 mars 1741, Versailles 15 juillet 1828, Paris), bien connu pour ses œuvres réalistes, est un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean Antoine Houdon — Jean Houdon, statue à Versailles Jean Antoine Houdon (20 mars 1741, Versailles 15 juillet 1828, Paris), bien connu pour ses œuvres réalistes, est un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean-Antoine Houdon — El taller de Houdon por Louis Léopold Boilly Nacimiento 1741 ,hace 270 años Versai …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jean-Antoine Houdon — Jean Houdon, statue à Versailles Jean Antoine Houdon (20 mars 1741, Versailles 15 juillet 1828, Paris), bien connu pour ses œuvres réalistes, est un sculpteur français …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean-Antoine Houdon — (* 20. März 1741 in Versailles; † 15. Juli 1828 in Paris) war ein französischer Bildhauer des Klassizismus. Comtesse de Sabran …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jean Antoine Houdon — (* 20. März 1741 in Versailles; † 15. Juli 1828 in Paris) war ein französischer Bildhauer aus dem Klassizismus. Comtesse de Sabran …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jean-Antoine Houdon — (March 20, 1741 ndash; July 15, 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor. Houdon is famous for his portrait busts and statues of philosophers, inventors and political figures of the Enlightenment. Houdon s subjects include Denis Diderot (1771),… …   Wikipedia

  • Jean-Antoine Houdon — (nacido en Versalles en 1741, fallecido en París en 1828), fue un escultor francés, figura cumbre del neoclasicismo francés. Destacó en sus retratos por la búsqueda del carácter individual, lo que le acercó al prerromanticismo. Discípulo de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Houdon, Jean-Antoine — born March 20, 1741, Versailles, Fr. died July 15, 1828, Paris French sculptor. He studied with Jean Baptiste Pigalle in Paris and in 1761 won the Prix de Rome. In Rome (1764–68) he achieved immediate fame with an anatomical study of a standing… …   Universalium

  • Houdon, Jean-Antoine — (1741 1828)    sculptor    Considered the greatest portrait sculptor of his time, Jean Antoine Houdon was born in versailles and trained in the studios of Paris. He won the prix de Rome for sculpture in 1761 and studied in italy until 1768, being …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.