- Shammai• Jewish scribe who together with Hillel made up the last of 'the pairs', or as they are sometimes erroneously named, 'presidents and vice-presidents' of the Sanhedrin
Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006.
- ShammaiShammai† Catholic_Encyclopedia ► Shammai(Called ha-Zekan, "the Elder").A famous Jewish scribe who together with Hillel made up the last of "the pairs" (zúgóth), or, as they are sometimes erroneously named, "presidents and vice-presidents" of the Sanhedrin. The schools of Shammai and Hillel held rival sway, according to Talmudic tradition (Shabbath 15a), from about a hundred years before the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Comparatively little is known about either of the great scribes. The Mischna, the only trustworthy authority in this matter, mentions Shammai in only eight passages (Maaser sheni, II, 4, 9; Orla, II, 5; Eduyoth I, 1-4, 10, II; Aboth, I, 12, 15, V, 17; Kelim, XXII, 4; Nidda, I, 1). He was the very opposite of Hillel in character and teaching. Stern and severe in living the law to the letter, he was strict to an extreme in legal interpretation. The tale tells that, on the feast of the Tabernacles, his daughter-in-law gave birth to a child; straightway Shammai had the roof broken through and the bed covered over with boughs, so that the child might celebrate the feast in an improvised sukka (tent or booth) and might not fail of keeping the law of Leviticus (xxiii, 42).The strictness of the master characterizes the school of Shammai as opposed to that of Hillel. The difference between the two schools had regard chiefly to the interpretation of the first, second, third and fifth parts of the "Mishna" — i.e. to religious dues, the keeping of the Sabbath and of holy days, the laws in regard to marriage and purification. The law, for example, to prepare no food on the Sabbath had to be observed by not allowing even the beast to toil; hence it was argued that an egg laid on the Sabbath might not be eaten (Eduyoth, iv, 1). Another debate was whether, on a holy day, a ladder might be borne from one dove-cote to another or should only be glided from hole to hole. The need of fringes to a linen night-dress was likewise made a matter of difference between the two schools (Eduyoth, iv, 10). In these and many other discussions we find much straining out of gnats and swallowing of camels (Matt., xxiii, 24), much pain taken to push the Mosaic law to an unbearable extreme, and no heed given to the practical reform which was really needed in Jewish morals. It was the method of the school of Shammai rather than that of Hillel which Christ condemned. On this account non-Catholic scholars generally make Him out to have belonged to the school of Hillel. This opinion has been shared in by a few Catholics (Gigot, "General Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scripture", New York, 1900, p. 422). Most Catholic exegetes, however, refuse to admit that Christ belonged to any of the fallible Jewish schools of interpretation. He established His own school — to wit, the infallible teaching body to which He gave the Old Testament to have and to keep and to interpret to all nations without error.SCHURER, The Jeuish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, I (Edinburgh, 1885), 361; GRATZ, Geschichte der Juden, III (3rd ed. Berlin, 1875), 671 (tr. Philadelphia, 1873).WALTER DRUMTranscribed by Joseph E. O'Connor
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat. 1910.
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Shammai — (50 BCE ndash;30 CE, Hebrew: שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism s core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.Shammai was the most eminent contemporary and the halakhic opponent of Hillel, and is… … Wikipedia
SHAMMAI — (Ha Zaken, i.e., The Elder; c. 50 B.C.E.–c. 30 C.E.), one of the zugot , the leaders of the Sanhedrin. Hillel s first colleague was menahem the Essene and Shammai was appointed to succeed him as av bet din when he retired. Nothing is known of the … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Shammai — Shammaï Shammaï (mort en 30 ap. J. C.) fut contemporain d Hillel, et comme lui, une figure majeure de la Mishna. Shammaï et Hillel forment le couple de Sages le plus célèbre de l histoire talmudique. Ils sont en constant désaccord sur la Halakha … Wikipédia en Français
Shammaï — la tombe de Shammaï à Méron Shammaï (mort en 30 ap. J. C.) fut contemporain d Hillel, et comme lui, une figure majeure de la Mishna. Shammaï et Hillel forment le couple de Sages le plus célèbre de l histoire talmudique. Ils sont en constant… … Wikipédia en Français
Shammai — (50 BC–c. AD 30) Jewish sage. Shammai ha Zaken (‘the Elder’) and his contemporary HILLEL were the leading Jewish scholars and teachers of the late Second Temple period, and were co heads of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. Each was the founder and… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Shammai — A rabbinical teacher [[➝ teaching]] in the time of Jesus. He gave a rigorous interpretation of the Law, contrasting with the more relaxed and liberal views of Hillel. Those of the Shammai school were often in conflict with the Roman authorities,… … Dictionary of the Bible
Shammai — /shah muy/ fl. 1st century B.C., Hebrew rabbi: founder of Beth Shammai, school of hermeneutics. * * * … Universalium
Shammai — (fl. 1st cent BCE) Palestinian rabbi. He was a contemporary of Hillel, and together they were the last of the zugot. He adopted a rigorous standpoint in moral and religious matters. The School of Shammai later disputed legal issues with the… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
SHAMMAI — an eminent Jewish rabbi of the time of Herod, who held the position of supreme judge in the Sanhedrim under the presidency of HILLEL (q.v.), and whose narrow, rigid orthodoxy and repressive policy became the leading principles of his school,… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Shammai — /shah muy/ fl. 1st century B.C., Hebrew rabbi: founder of Beth Shammai, school of hermeneutics … Useful english dictionary