Pax in the Liturgy
Pax in the Liturgy
A liturgical salutation ('Peace be with you')

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

Pax in the Liturgy
    Pax in the Liturgy
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Pax in the Liturgy
    Pax vobis (or vobiscum), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum), is of Scriptural origin. The Gospels contain such forms as: "veniet pax vestra, "pax vestra revertetur ad vos" (Matt., x, 13), "Pax huic domui" (Luke, x, 5), "Pax vobis" (Luke, xxiv, 36; John, xx, 21, 26). The salutation, "Gratia vobis et pax" or "Gratia misericordia et pax", is the opening formula of most of the Epistles of St. Paul and of St. Peter, and occurs also in those of St. John as well as in the Apocalypse. The formula was quoted from the Old Testament by Our Lord and His Apostles (cf. especially "Pax vobiscum", "Pax tecum", Gen., xliii, 23; Judges, vi, 23), and was thus naturally preserved in the liturgy and in Christian epigraphy as a memorial of Apostolic times. Like the Dominus vobiscum, it was first used in the liturgy (in the form of Pax vobis) by the bishop in welcoming the faithful at the beginning of the Mass before the Collect or the Oratio. When the Confiteor, Introit, Gloria in excelsis were added at a later period, the Pax vobis or the Dominus vobiscum was preserved. The form Pax vobis is now employed by bishops and prelates only — Dominus vobiscum being used by priests — at the first Collect. Hence the Dominus vobiscum became the ordinary introduction to all the orations and most of the prayers. The Greeks have preserved the Pax omnibus or Pax vobiscum. There was formally a certain rivalry between the two formulae, Pax vobis and Dominus vobiscum, and some councils (notably that of Braga in 563) ordained that both bishops and priests should employ the same form of salutation (for the texts, see the bibliography). Besides this episcopal or sacerdotal salutation, the words Pax tecum, Pax vobis, or Pax vobiscum are used in the Liturgy at the kiss of peace. On such occasions the Liturgy contains prayers or collects ad pacem (cf. Kiss; Cabrol in "Dict. d'archéol. et de liturgie", s.v. "Baiser de Paix", where all references are given). In the Ambrosian Liturgy, at the end of the Mass, the people are dismissed with the words: "Ite in pace" (cf. "Auctarium Solesmense", 95). Dom Martene (op. cit. in bibliography, III, 171, 174) gives other instances of the use of the word Pax. In Christian epigraphy there is a variety of formulae: pax; in pace; pax tecum; vivas in pace; requiescat in pace; pax Christi tecum sit; anima dulcissima requiescas in pace; dormit in pace; in locum refrigerii, lucis et pacis (from the formula in the Mass at the Momento of the Dead). See EARLY CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS; Le Blant, "Inscriptions chret. de la Gaule", I, 264, etc.; Northcote, "Epitaphs of the Catacombs" (London, 1878), v, and bibliography.
    In addition to the works and articles cited in the text, consult: Peter Damian, an opusculum on Dominus Vobiscum in P.L. CXLV, 234; Zaccaria, Onomasticon, s. vv. Pax vobis and Salutatio episcopalis; Bona Rerum liturg., III, 12, 88 sqq.; Smith, Dict. of Christ. Antiq., s.v. Pax (cf. Dominus vobiscum); De dignitate sacerdotali (not written by St. Ambrose, as was long believed, but by Gerbert), v, in P.L.., XVII, 598 and CXXXIX, 175, contains an important text on this subject; Rocca De salutatione sacerdotis in missa et divinis officiis in Thesaurus antiquitat., I (Rome, 1745), 236; Martene, De antiq. eccles. ritibus, I, 151 sqq.; Mamachi, Origines et antiq. christ., IV, 479; III, 17, 19; Ephemerides liturg. (Feb., 1910), 108; Probst, Die abendlandische Messe, 104, 404, 437; see Dominus Vobiscum, V, 114; Cabrol in Dict. d'archeol. chret., s.v. Acclamations. For the formula Pax and other formulas in funeral epigraphy, cf. EARLY CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS; Kirsch, Die Acclamationen u. Gebete der altchristl. Grabschriften (Cologne, 1897); Idem Les acclamations des epitaphes chret. de l'antiquite et les prieres liturg. pour les defunts in IV Congres scientifique des Catholiques (Fribourg, 1898), 113-22; Syxto, Notiones archaeol. christ., II, Epigraphia, 94 sqq.; Cabrol, La priere pour les morts in Revue d'apologetique (15 Sept., 1909); Idem, Livre de la priere antique, 67, 69.
    FERNAND CABROL
    Transcribed by Lawrence Progel

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


Catholic encyclopedia.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Eucharist in the Catholic Church — The institution of the Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th century Juan de Juanes painting. At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the Eucharistic… …   Wikipedia

  • Fasting and abstinence in the Roman Catholic Church — For Roman Catholics, fasting is the reduction of one s intake of food to one full meal a day. This may or may not be accompanied by abstinence from meat when eating. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that all people are obliged by God to perform… …   Wikipedia

  • Christianity in the 11th century — Medallion of Christ from Constantinople, circa. 1100. Main article: History of medieval Christianity See also: Christianity in the 10th century and Christianity in the 12th century In 1054, following the death of the Patriarch of Rome Leo IX …   Wikipedia

  • Pax (liturgy) — Pax vobis ( peace to you ), or pax vobiscum ( peace with you ), are salutations in the Latin Mass.OriginsLike the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), the Pax is of Scriptural origin. The Gospels contain such forms as: veniet… …   Wikipedia

  • The Gallican Rite —     The Gallican Rite     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Gallican Rite     This subject will be treated under the following six heads:     I. History and Origin; II. MSS. and Other Sources; III. The Liturgical Year; IV. The Divine Office; V. The… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Liturgy of the Mass —     Liturgy of the Mass     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Liturgy of the Mass     A. Name and Definition     The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites. As in the case of all… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The Celtic Rite —     The Celtic Rite     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Celtic Rite     This subject will be treated under the following seven heads:     I. History and Origin; II. Manuscript Sources; III. The Divine Office; IV. The Mass; V. the Baptismal Service; …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Mass (liturgy) — A 15th century Mass …   Wikipedia

  • Gloria in Excelsis Deo — • The great doxology (hymnus angelicus) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form . It begins with the words sung by the angels at Christ s birth (Luke, ii, 14). To this verse others were added very early, forming a doxology Catholic… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Agnus Dei (in Liturgy) —     Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)     A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass (except on Good Friday and Holy Saturday) in the Roman rite. It occurs towards the end of the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”