Andalusia
Andalusia
The name given by the Arabs to the portion of Spain subject to their dominion

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

Andalusia
    Andalusia
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Andalusia
    This appellative is derived from the Al-Andulus, the name given by the Arabs to the portion of Spain subject to their dominion. According to the opinion of D. Eduardo Saavedra, the name was applied after the battle of Las Naves in 1212 (when the Sierra Moreña became the dividing line between the Christian and the Moorish possessions) to the territory under the control of the Moors, the limits of which were approximately the same as that of the present Andalusia. This country is situated in the southern part of the Iberian peninsula, and is bounded on the north by the provinces of Badajoz and New Castile, on the south by the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the provinces of Albacete and Murcia, and on the west by Portugal. Its total area is about 33,950 square miles, and the number of its inhabitants, according to the latest census (verified in 1900), 3,433,693. The principal mountain ranges that traverse this section are Sierra Moreña in the north, Sierra Nevada in the south, and Sierra Almagrera and Sierra de Gador to the east. The largest rivers are the Guadalquivir, the Guadalete, Rio Tinto, the Guadalmedina, and the Genil, a tributary of the Guadalquivir. The climate in general is temperate, the portion bordering directly on the sea being hot. The soil is very fertile in almost all the level country, especially in the flat arable land around Cordova and Seville, and in the wide open plain of Granada; it is poor in other sections, because of the scarcity of water — as in certain parts of the province of Cadiz — or because of innate properties of the soil — as in Alpujarras. The most important products are cereals, olives, beet-root, and sugar-cane in the low lands; grapes, figs, oranges, and pomegranates in the vegas (irrigated lands). The oils of Cordova and Seville, and the wines of Jerez and Malaga are famous; also the raisins of Malaga. Much attention is given in Cordova and Seville to the breeding of fine horses, and these provinces are also famous for their breed of bulls.
    At the present time there are in Andalusia two archbishoprics: Seville and Granada; and five bishoprics: Cadiz, Cordova, Jaen, Malaga, Almeria, and Guadix. The military department is represented by a capitanía general, with headquarters at Seville and eight stations, one in each province. The judiciary is divided into two districts (audiencias territoriales), that of Seville and that of Granada; the political and administrative department is divided into eight provinces, each named from its capital: Seville, Cadiz, Huelva, Cordova, Jaen, Malaga, Granada and Almeria. The Andalusians speak a dialect of the Spanish language, the chief difference being the pronunciation of the letter h, giving s the sound of z, and c the sound of s (in the syllables ce, ci), and the suppression of the final s. Many strangers visit Andalusia every year, especially in the spring, attracted by the beauty of its many historic monuments — pre-eminently, the cathedral and Alcazar of Seville, the cathedral of Cordova, and the Alhambra — and also by the typically national character of the Holy Week services at Seville, and of Corpus Christi at Granada. Fairs of great local interest are held in both cities in the week following these services.
    Andalusia was inhabited in early historic times by a people of Iberian origin; the Turdetani occupied what are now the provinces of Seville and Huelva; the Turduli, Jaen, Cordova, and part of Granada; the Bastuli, Malaga, and the coast of Granada; and the Bastetani, Jaen, Guadix, Baza, and Almeria. To this region called Tarshish in the Bible and Tartessos by Greek writers, the Phoenicians came, about the year 1100 B.C., settling in what is now Cadiz, and later spreading to Malaga, Adra, and Jete, all three celebrated for their deposits of salt. The Carthaginians succeeded the Phoenicians in power, and ruled over almost the whole of Andalusia until their expulsion by the Romans. Under the Roman dominion Andalusia formed a part of Farther Spain (Hispania Ulterior) during the Republic, and an independent province, called Boetica, in the time of the Empire. With the Germanic invasion came the Vandals, who established themselves here, to be followed by the Visigoths when the Vandals passed over into Africa. When Athanagild called the Byzantines to his aid, he gave them as a compensation the most southerly portion of Andalusia, but Leovigild Suintila, and Sisebut succeeded in reuniting it to the monarchy of the Visigoths. Under the rule of the Emirs, subordinates of the Caliph of Damascus, and in the time of the Caliphate of Cordova, Andalusia was the centre of the political life and literary and artistic culture of the Arab people. At the downfall of the Caliphate (1030), it was subdivided into eleven independent states, some extremely small: Cordova, Seville, Carmona, Maron, Arcos, Niebla, Huelva, Malaga, Ronda, Granada, and Almeria. The Almoravides (1086-1129) and the Almohades (1129-1272) subjugated all this territory to their dominion. Ferdinand III, the Saint, King of Castile and Leon, in the middle of the thirteenth century, reconquered Jaen, Cordova, and Seville, leaving to the Arabs only the kingdom of Granada, which comprised the greater part of the present provinces of Malaga, Granada and Almeria. Finally, after a war which lasted nine years, Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic, obtained possession of Granada, entering the capital city in triumph, 2 January, 1492. Andalusia has produced many illustrious men in science, art, letters and the profession of arms. It will be sufficient to mention the philosopher Francisco Suarez, the ascetic writer Fray Luis de Granada, the painter Murillo, and El Gran Capitan, Gonsalvo de Cordova.
    SANCHEZ Y CASADO, Elementos de geografia comparada (Madrid, 1894); KIEPERT, Lehrbuch der alten Geographie (Berlin, 1889); GUERRA E HINOJOSA, Historia de la dominacion de los pueblos germanicos en España (Madrid, 1890); SIMONET, Descripcion del reino de Granada bajo la dominacion de los Naseritas (Madrid, 1861). For the Arab conquest see CODERA nd SAAVEDRA.
    EDUARDO DE HINOJOSA
    Transcribed by John Fobian In memory of John Henry Johnson

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


Catholic encyclopedia.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Andalusia — (engl. für Andalusien) ist der Name mehrerer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Andalusia (Alabama) Andalusia (Arizona) Andalusia (Florida) Andalusia (Illinois) Andalusia (Pennsylvania) mehrere gleichnamige, im NRHP gelistete, Objekte: Andalusia… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Andalusia — Andalusia, AL U.S. city in Alabama Population (2000): 8794 Housing Units (2000): 4279 Land area (2000): 18.874470 sq. miles (48.884652 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.093783 sq. miles (0.242897 sq. km) Total area (2000): 18.968253 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • ANDALUSIA — regio Hispaniae et regni Castellae, sub quae maior Hispaniae Baeticae pars, olim Vandlitia, a Vandalis Germaniae populis, dicta, quibus Sarraceni succesêre, tandem ab Alphonso 3. pulsi. Aliqui vero Historici eam Baeticam, a fluvio Baeti, ipsam… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Andalusia — former name of southern Spain, from Spanish, from Arabic al Andalus, name for the entire peninsula, from L.L. *Vandalicia the country of the Vandals, in reference to one of the Germanic tribes that overran the Western Empire 3c. 4c. and for a… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Andalusia — [än΄dä lo͞o thē′äan΄də lo͞o′zhə, an΄də lo͞o′shə; an΄də lo͞o′zhē ə, an΄də lo͞o′shē ə] region of S Spain on the Mediterranean & the Atlantic: 33,694 sq mi (87,268 sq km); pop. 6,941,000; cap. Seville: Sp. name Andalucía [än΄dä lo͞o thē′ä] …   English World dictionary

  • Andalusia — For the more extensive Muslim era region, see Al Andalus. For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). Andalusia Andalucía (Spanish)   Autonomous Community   …   Wikipedia

  • Andalusia — Andalusian, adj., n. /an dl ooh zheuh, shee euh/, n. 1. Spanish, Andalucía /ahn dah looh thee ah, see ah/. a region in S Spain, bordering on the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. 33,712 sq. mi. (87,314 sq. km). 2. a city in S Alabama.… …   Universalium

  • Andalusia — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Andalusia est le nom anglais de l Andalousie. Ce nom peut aussi désigner : Andalusia (Alabama) Andalusia (Illinois) Catégorie : Homonymie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Andalusia — 1 Original name in latin Andalusia Name in other language State code US Continent/City America/Chicago longitude 31.3085 latitude 86.48329 altitude 106 Population 9015 Date 2011 05 14 2 Original name in latin Andalusia Name in other language… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Andalusia — Sp Andalužà Ap Andalusia L JAV: Kovingtono apyg. c. (Alabama), g tė (Ilinojus) …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”