Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville
Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville
    Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville
    Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881; brother of the preceding. Finishing his classical studies in Paris, he built himself a laboratory there and worked for eight years without teachers or students. He acquired much fame by his work, and in 1844 the government entrusted him with the organization of the faculty of sciences of Besançon. He was professor and dean there from 1845 to 1851. In 1851 he was called to Paris as maître des conférences in the Ecole Normale Supérieure replacing Balard. In 1853 he replaced Dumas in the Sorbonne and succeeded him as professor in 1859. In 1861 he was made a member of the Academy of Sciences. His work in mineral chemistry entitles him to be considered one of the great chemists of the second half of the nineteenth century. He discovered the phenomenon of dissociation, his first notion of this going back to 1857. He discovered nitrogen pentoxide, the anhydride of nitric acid. Woehler, the great German chemist, had discovered aluminum in 1827. Deville worked on the metallurgy of the metal, and devised a means of preparing it by decomposing aluminium sodium chloride with metallic sodium. This was the first commercial process of producing the metal, which was for some time almost a curiosity, but whose uses are now so extensive. Napoleon III was greatly interested in the new metal, the "silver of clay". Debray was associated with him in his work; and it is interesting to see how, after over fifty-six years, the metal has been introduced on a large scale into mechanical use. In the technical field he worked upon the use of petroleum and heavy oils as fuels, where he was also a leader in one of the prominent movements of the present day, the use of crude petroleum as fuel for the production of steam. Many of his memoirs are published in the "Comptes rendues" and "Annales". Among his works we may cite: "De l'aluminium, ses propriétés, sa fabrication" (Paris, 1859); Métallurgie du platine et des métaux qui l'accompangnent" (Paris, 1863).
    GAY, Henri St. Claire-Deville, sa vie et ses travaux (Paris, 1889); VAPEREAU, Dictionnaire universel des contemporains; POGGENDORFF, Biographisches literarisches Handworterbuch, III (1898) 2.
    T. O'CONOR SLOANE
    Transcribed by Jeffrey L. Anderson

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


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  • Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville — (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war Professor in Besançon u …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville — (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war Professor in Be …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville — (March 9, 1818 July 1, 1881) was a French chemist.He was born in the island of St Thomas, West Indies, where his father was French consul. Together with his elder brother Charles he was educated in Paris at the College Rollin. In 1844, having… …   Wikipedia

  • Deville , Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire — (1818–1881) French chemist The son of a wealthy shipowner from the West Indies island of St. Thomas, Deville studied medicine in Paris but became interested in chemistry by attending Louis Thenard s lectures. He isolated toluene and methyl… …   Scientists

  • Henri Sainte-Claire Deville — Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE (H.) — SAINTE CLAIRE DEVILLE HENRI (1818 1881) Chimiste français né à l’île Saint Thomas (Antilles) et mort à Boulogne sur Seine. Fils d’un consul de France, Henri Étienne Sainte Claire Deville obtient, en 1844, deux doctorats, en médecine et en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne — • Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sainte-Claire Deville —   [sɛ̃tklɛːrdə vil], Henri Étienne, französischer Chemiker, * auf Saint Thomas (Virgin Islands) 11. 3. 1818, ✝ Boulogne sur Seine (heute Boulogne Billancourt) 1. 7. 1881; Professor in Besançon (1845 51) und Paris. Sainte Claire Deville… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sainte-Claire Deville — (spr. ßängt klǟr döwĭl ), 1) Charles, Geolog und Meteorolog, geb. 26. Febr. 1814 auf St. Thomas, gest. 10. Okt. 1876 in Paris, besuchte die Bergschule in Paris, bereiste Westindien, Teneriffa, die Kapverdischen Inseln und wurde Präsident der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sainte-Claire-Deville — (spr. ßängt klähr dĕwil), Charles, franz. Geolog und Meteorolog, geb. 26. Febr. 1814 auf Sankt Thomas, gest. 10. Okt. 1876 in Paris als Generalinspektor der meteorolog. Stationen Frankreichs; Entdecker des amorphen Schwefels; schrieb: »Voyage… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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