Christopher Clavius
Christopher Clavius
    Christopher Clavius
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Christopher Clavius
    Christoph Clau, mathematician and astronomer, whose most important achievement related to the reform of the calendar under Gregory XIII; born at Bamberg, Bavaria, 1538; died at Rome, 12 February, 1612. The German form of his name was latinized into "Clavius". He entered the Society of Jesus in 1555 and his especial talent for mathematical research showed itself even in his preliminary studies at Coimbra. Called to Rome by his superiors as teacher of this branch of science at the well-known Collegium Romanum, he was engaged uninterruptedly there until his death. the greatest scholars of his time, such men as Tycho Brahe, Johann Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Giovanni Antonio Magini, esteemed him highly. He was called the "Euclid of the sixteenth century"; and even his scientific opponents, like Scaliger, said openly that they would rather be censured by a Clavius than praised by another man. There has, however, been no lack of persistent disparagement of Catholic scholars even down to our own times; and therefore much that is inexact, false, and mythical has been put into circulation about Clavius, as for example that he was originally named "Schlüssel" (clavis, "key"), that he was appointed a Cardinal, that he met his death by the thrust of a mad bull, etc. His relations with Galilei, with whom he remained on friendly terms until his death, have also been often misrepresented. The best evidence of the actual achievements of the great man is presented by his numerous writings, which at the end of his life he reissued at Mainz in five huge folio volumes in a collective edition under the title, "Christophori Clavii e Scoietate Jesu opera mathematica, quinque tomis distributa". The first contains the Euclidian geometry and the "Spheric" of Theodosius (Sphaericorum Libri III); the second, the practical geometry and algebra; the third is composed of a complete commentary upon the "Sphaera" of Joannes de Sacro Bosco (John Holywood), and a dissertation upon the astrolabe; the fourth contains what was up to that time the most detailed and copious discussion of gnomonics, i.e. the art of constructing all possible sun-dials; finally, the fifth contains the best and most fundamental exposition of the reform of the calendar accomplished under Gregory XIII.
    Many of these writings had already appeared in numerous previous editions, especially the "Commentarius in Sphaeram Joannis de Sacro Bosco" (Rome, 1570, 1575, 1581, 1585, 1606; Venice, 1596, 1601, 1602, 1603, 1607, Lyons, 1600, 1608, etc.); likewise the "Euclidis Elementorum Libri XV" (Rome 1574, 1589, 1591, 1603, 1605; Frankfort 1612). After his death also these were republished in 1617, 1627, 1654, 1663, 1717, at Cologne, Frankfort, and Amsterdam, and were even translated into Chinese. In his "Geometria Practica" (1604) Clavius states among other things a method of dividing a measuring scale into subdivisions of any desired smallness, which is far more complete than that given by Nonius and must be considered as the precursor of the measuring instrument named after Vernier, to which perhaps the name Clavius ought accordingly to be given. The chief merit of Clavius, however, lies in the profound exposition and masterly defence of the Gregorian calendar reform, the execution and final victory of which are due chiefly to him. Cf. "Romani calendarii a Gregorio XIII restituti explicatio" (Rome, 1603); "Novi calendarii Romani apologia (adversus M. Maestlinum in Tubingensi Academiâ mathematicum)" (Rome, 1588). Distinguished pupils of Clavius were Grienberger and Blancanus, both priests of the Society of Jesus.
    ADOLF MÜLLER
    Transcribed by Rick McCarty

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.


Catholic encyclopedia.

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  • Christopher Clavius — For the lunar crater, see Clavius (crater). Christopher Clavius Christopher Clavius (March 25, 1538 – February 12, 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. In his last… …   Wikipedia

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  • Clavius, Christopher — • Mathematician and astronomer (1538 1612) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Clavius — Christophorus Clavius Christophorus Clavius Christopher Clau dit Christophorus Clavius est un savant jésuite allemand né le 25 mars 1538 à Bamberg et décédé le 2 février 1612 à Rome. En tant que mathématicien, il a rédigé en 1574 une version… …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Christoph Clavius — Christophorus Clavius (* 1537 oder 1538 vermutlich als Christoph Clau in Bamberg (?); † 6. Februar 1612 in Rom) war Mathematiker und Jesuitenpater am Collegio Romano. Von seinen Zeitgenossen „Euklid des 16. Jahrhunderts“ genannt, wurde er vor… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Christophorus Clavius — (* 1537 oder 1538 möglicherweise als Christoph Clau oder Schlüssel in oder bei Bamberg; † 6. Februar 1612 in Rom) war Mathematiker und Jesuitenpater am Collegio Romano. Von seinen Zeitgenossen „Euklid des 16. Jahrhunderts“ genannt, wurde er vor… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Christophorus Clavius — Christopher Clau dit Christophorus Clavius est un savant jésuite allemand né le 25 mars 1538 à Bamberg et décédé le 12 février 1612 à Rome. Sommaire …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Cristóbal Clavio — Christopher Clavius (1538 1612), fue un jesuita alemán conocido como matemático, astrónomo y un gran gnomonicista. Se puede considerar como uno de los primeros promotores del Calendario Gregoriano. En sus últimos días de vida fue el astrónomo más …   Wikipedia Español

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